What is the dispute between India and China on the McMahon Line, it was considered an international border in the US Senate

The US recently passed a bipartisan resolution. Under this, the McMahon Line has been recognized as the international boundary between Arunachal Pradesh and China and the northeastern state of Arunachal Pradesh has been described as an ‘integral part of India. 

Proposal to be introduced in the US Senate Senator Bill Haggerty, one of the MPs, said that China is currently posing a serious threat to the Indo-Pacific region, in such a situation it becomes necessary for the US to stand shoulder to shoulder with its strategic partners, especially India. Standing shoulder to shoulder with them. 

Hegerty and Senator Jeff Merkley, presenting the resolution, said that we are taking this step after the skirmishes between the Indian Army and the Chinese People’s Liberation Army. After this resolution, it became clear that the Senate clearly supports Arunachal Pradesh as an integral part of India. Presenting the resolution, Henry condemned China’s demand to change the status quo on the Line of Actual Control.   

Please tell that this proposal of America also rejects the claim of People’s Republic of China ie PRC, according to which Arunachal Pradesh is the territory of China. Senator Jeff Merkley said, ‘America supports freedom, fairness, and the rule of law. It is clear from the proposal that America considers Arunachal Pradesh as an integral part of India, that is, America does not consider Arunachal Pradesh as a part of People’s Republic of China. 

China and India have old Fighting

Since 1962, India and China have been at loggerheads over the Sikkim-Bhutan-Tibet border.  The latest case is about the clash between India and China on 9 December 2022 in Tawang, Arunachal Pradesh. After this skirmish, the Indian Army said that some soldiers of both the countries were injured in the skirmish but the number of Chinese soldiers is more. Earlier in the year 2020, the conflict between the two countries was quite violent. Since 1975, there was a skirmish between the soldiers of the two countries in Galvan.

After the skirmish, China had increased the deployment of its patrol boats in Pangong Tso Lake in eastern Ladakh.  This area is near the Line of Actual Control in Ladakh. India shares a 3,488 kilometer long border with China. This border passes through Jammu-Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. 

The special thing is that China has border disputes with many countries along with India. A total of 14 countries are included in this. This list includes  India-Pakistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia, North Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, Bhutan and Nepal i.e. all these countries have borders with China. < /p>

Over time, China has resolved its disputes with Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Myanmar, Pakistan and Russia to a great extent, but this dispute is still going on with most of the neighboring countries. At present, China’s biggest border dispute is going on with India and to some extent with Bhutan. Apart from land border, four countries also share sea border with China. This includes  Japan, South Korea, Vietnam and the Philippines.

Understand where the roots of the dispute lie 

According to experts, colonial rule Because of this  the border dispute between the Asian countries had arisen.  When the colonial powers were at their peak, everyone built many modern countries in their own arbitrary way. On the other hand, African, Asian, American countries have never established strict relations with their borders. But China was forced to join many treaties during this period. Now China after its rise creates controversy due to these reasons.  

 What were the treaties that compelled China

19th And in the beginning of the 20th century, under compulsion, China agreed to many treaties with Britain, France, Germany, America, Russia and Japan. Many of these treaties were such in which the Chinese government gave protection to the colonialists. This means that China has given  privileges to these countries to do business. During this, China also handed over some of its territory to these countries. in Vietnam) and  took the territory of Taiwan to Japan. 
Although the Soviet Union  after the Russian Revolution  Later returned its territory to China, but other forces maintained their penetration in Asia for several decades. Most of China’s  border disputes are due to this colonial period. 

What is the border dispute between India and China?

Most of the disputes The main reason is China’s disobedience to the McMahon Line. India recognizes and accepts the McMahon Line. Sir Henry McMahon, Foreign Secretary in the Government of British India  This line was drawn. This is called Shimla Agreement. Sir Henry McMahon was also the chief negotiator of the Shimla Conference held between Britain, China and Tibet. At that time China’s interlocutor was Ivan Chen. He said that he was not authorized to discuss Tibet’s border with India. 

That is, according to China, the McMahon Line was discussed between the British and the Tibetans in China’s absence. .  Later China objected to this agreement and this agreement was termed as a bilateral  agreement of India and Tibet. At that time, the area south of Tibet was declared a part of British India. Due to this, the Tawang region of Arunachal Pradesh came in the part of India.  This part was historically known as South Tibet. 

Tibet came under the control of India in 1950. In response to China, India says that when the McMahon Line was drawn, China did not have sovereignty over Tibet. At the same time, China had started asserting its claim on Arunachal Pradesh as well.  According to history, the Ahom kings of Tawang and the Deb kings had economic relations with the tribes of Arunachal. At the same time, Tawang Math had spiritual relations with Lhasa. China continues to escalate the matter by claiming Arunachal Pradesh at the diplomatic level. But it is also clear that the people of Arunachal have never considered China as their own.  

Understand the McMahon Line 

After the Simla Agreement  considered the border between India’s Northeast Frontier Region including Tawang and Outer Tibet . India got independence in 1947 and the People’s Republic of China came into existence in 1949. China did not accept the Shimla Agreement, saying that Tibet is China’s right and does not accept the agreement signed by any representative of the Government of Tibet.

In 1938, the then  British Government of India Map showing the McMahon Line officially presented. While the Northeast Frontier Province came into existence only in 1954. According to experts, in the year 1986, the Indian Army saw permanent buildings built by the Chinese Army near Sumdorong Chu in Tawang, Arunachal Pradesh. Overall, China does not accept the McMahon Line in Arunachal Pradesh and also rejects all claims of India on Aksai Chin.

China is eyeing Tawang in Arunachal Pradesh as well< /strong>

China considers Tawang a part of Tibet. China says that there is a great deal of cultural similarity between Tawang and Tibet. Experts believe that China wants to take Tawang with it and make it a Buddhist place like Tibet and B wants to maintain its hold over there. This is the reason why when the Dalai Lama visited Tawang Monastery, China openly opposed it.  Explain that in 1914 there was an agreement between the representatives of British India and Tibet, then Tawang and the southern part of Arunachal Pradesh were considered as part of India and China has objection to this.



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