Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sangh has given a big statement regarding marriage amidst the ruckus on homosexuality. Sarkaryavah Dattatreya Hosabale said after the meeting of the All India Representative Assembly of the Sangh that marriage in Hindu tradition is a sacrament and not a compromise.
Hosabale said that marriage in Hinduism is not a thing of consumption or agreement. We are with the government’s stand in this matter. Recently, the central government has opposed same-sex marriage by presenting an affidavit in the Supreme Court.
Center has said that same sex marriage is against Indian tradition. Marriage here is valid only in the opposite sex. All the laws that we have made so far have been made keeping in view the husband and wife. If it is valid, all the laws will have to be changed.
Discussion has started on this statement of the Sangh, which calls marriage a sacrament. In such a situation, let us know in this story, what has been said about marriage in other religions including Hindu-Muslim?
Mohan Bhagwat called marriage a ‘deal’
In 2013, Sangh chief Mohan Bhagwat called marriage a compromise in a program in Indore. According to a BBC report, while questioning the institution of marriage, Bhagwat had said- ‘Marriage is a kind of contract or deal.’
According to the report, in his speech, Bhagwat further said that husband and wife fulfill each other’s needs under the agreement. If these needs are not fulfilled then both have the right to leave each other. There was a lot of uproar on this statement of Bhagwat at that time.
Bhagwat had said in his speech that you may call marriage a sacrament, but it is a compromise. The husband tells his wife that you take care of the house and in return we will give you security and make arrangements to feed you.
Later the Sangh gave clarification on this. At that time Sangh spokesperson Ram Madhav had said that this statement of Mohan Bhagwat was in the context of western marriage, while the media linked it to the Indian marriage system.
Now know in detail what has been said about marriage in which religion?
Hinduism- Sixteen rituals have been mentioned in the scriptures of Hinduism. Marriage is also mentioned in the 13th scar of this. The meaning of marriage is- especially to bear the responsibility. The marriage of Surya and Surya is mentioned in Rigveda.
Marriage has been explained in detail in Arthav and Shatpath Brahmin. In Hinduism, marriage has been considered as a relation of birth and birth. That’s why at the time of marriage husband and wife take seven rounds considering fire as a witness.
According to Manusmriti, there are 8 types of marriages Brahma, Dev, Aarsh, Prajapatya, Asura, Gandharva, Rakshasa and Paishach. Among them, Brahma, Deva, Arsha and Prajapatya are considered to be excellent, while Asura, Gandharva, Rakshasa and Paishach are considered inferior.
According to Dhananjay Vasudev Dwivedi, Assistant Professor, Sanskrit Department, Dr. Syama Prasad Mookerjee University, marriage ceremony is most important in Hindu culture because all other rituals are dependent on it.
Marriage is called a sacrament because after this a person rises from the ground and reaches the family and social ground. In ancient times, marriage was considered a yagya.
Dwivedi further says- In Shatpath Brahmin, the wife has been called as Jaya i.e. half part. In Taittiriya Aranyaka, a man without a wife was not considered as the successor of the Yagya.
In 1955, the Hindu Marriage Act was implemented in India, in which the husband and wife were given the freedom to divorce. After this, questions were also raised many times about marriage being considered as a sacrament. Many organizations had also opposed this act at that time.
Islam- Marriage in Islam is called Nikah. Nikah is derived from the Arabic root nah, which means meeting or gathering. Marriage is considered a duty in Islam and also the best way to increase the generation.
The Prophet has told in the Hadith that Nikah is half faith. No human being is complete until he marries. There is also mention about 4 marriages in Islam. However, in recent times many questions were raised about this in India.
Marriage is considered a contract in Islam. Husband, wife along with a qazi and two witnesses are considered essential at the time of marriage. If the witnesses are not men, then 4 women will have to testify.
The amount of a dowry is decided before the marriage. With the amount of Meher, the husband i.e. the husband gives it to his wife as a gift. The tradition of marriage begins after the dowry amount is decided.
2 big disputes of marriage in Islam in India went to the Supreme Court. In the Abdul Qadir vs. Salima case, a two-judge bench of the Supreme Court, after listening to the arguments of Islam in detail, termed marriage as a contract.
Later, in the case of Anisha Begum vs Mohammad Mustafa, Allahabad High Court Chief Justice Shah Sulaiman described marriage in Islam as a sacrament as well as a compromise.
Sikh- In the 15th century, after separating from Hinduism, Sikhism was formed. The first Guru Nanak Dev of Sikhs gave his thoughts in Guru Granth Sahib. Four rituals have been mentioned in Guru Granth Sahib. Marriage is considered a sacrament in Sikhism.
– Birth and naming ceremony held in Gurdwara.
– Anand Karaj or marriage ceremony.
– Amrit Sanskar which is initiation ceremony in Khalsa.
– Posthumous is the funeral ceremony.
Anand Karaj was recognized in India in 1909 Sikh marriages were included in the Hindu Marriage Act again in 1955, however, again in 2012 it was removed.
Guru Ramdas has written in detail about Anand Karaj. All days are considered auspicious for Anand Karaj. That is, there is no need to see the lagna, auspicious time etc. for marriage. In Hinduism, 7 pheras are taken in marriage, while in Sikh it is customary to take 4 pheras.
At the time of marriage in Sikhism, the groom is made to sit in front of the Guru Granth Sahib and then the bride comes and sits on his left. The marriage is conducted by any Amritdhari Sikh. At the end the husband and wife bow before the Guru Granth Sahib.
Christian- Marriage is mentioned in the Genesis part of the Bible. In Christianity, marriage is considered a sacrament with a contract. According to the Bible, God said that it is not good for Adam to be alone. I’ll make a helper for that.
In the Bible, marriage between man to man and between woman to woman is considered prohibited. Marriage has also been described as a social union in Christianity. In the Bible, marriage is considered valid only after the mutual consent of the boy and the girl.
During the wedding, the bride and groom go to the church, where many rituals are performed. During this, both take an oath to be loyal to each other till the last breath.
Buddhist- Marriage in Buddhism is considered a secular matter, therefore it is outside the category of sacrament and agreement. Gautam Buddha neither said anything in favor of marriage nor against it in his sermon.
In the Sigalovada Sutta of the Buddhist scripture Digha Nikaya, followers have been given the right to choose a life partner. However, it justifies the opposite sex for choosing a life partner.
In many areas of Maharashtra, India, lakhs of families adopted Buddhism because of Babasaheb Bhim Rao Ambedkar. That’s why people of religion get married in these areas without any big event. Some rules have also been made for this.
Parsis- Fearing the invasion of Arabs, Parsis fled from Iran and settled in India. Marriage in Parsi is considered a tradition and a ritual along with the agreement. Parsis marry only on the basis of Vesta Dharma Granth. According to this, if a boy and a girl belong to a different religion, then marriage cannot take place.
It is said in Vesta that a Parsi can be a Parsi only by birth. Marriage in Zoroastrianism takes place in two phases. In the first phase, the bride and groom sign a marriage contract in front of their family and relatives. In the second phase there is a round of feasts i.e. reception.
Marriage in Zoroastrianism is done only after sunset. Unless the priest i.e. Dastur does not certify the marriage, the marriage is not recognized. Not only this, Parsis who marry into a different religion are also denied the last rites of their parents.